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Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Aug 26, 2019.
Diabetes mellitus is a condition defined by persistently high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. There are several types of diabetes. The two most common are called type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
During digestion, food is broken down into its basic components. Carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars, primarily glucose. Glucose is a critically important source of energy for the body''s cells. In a person without diabetes, the pancreas produces more insulin whenever blood levels of glucose rise (for example, after a meal), and the insulin signals the body''s ability to produce insulin or the cells''images/342754.jpg''432''379''s immune system mistakenly attacks other cells in the body. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system destroys the insulin-producing cells (called beta cells) in the pancreas. This leaves the person with little or no insulin in his or her body. Without insulin, glucose accumulates in the bloodstream rather than entering the cells. As a result, the body cannot use this glucose for energy. In addition, the high levels of blood glucose cause excessive urination and dehydration, and damage the body''images/342755.jpg''432''321''''s cells become less responsive to insulin''s insulin resistance gets worse. In response, the pancreas makes more and more insulin. Finally, the pancreas gets "" It cannot keep up with the demand for more and more insulin. As a result, blood glucose levels rise and stay high.
Type 2 diabetes is also called adult-onset diabetes. That''t efficiently move sugar (glucose) into the body''s called hyperosmolar syndrome.
The symptoms of these complications include confused thinking, weakness, nausea, vomiting, and even seizures and coma. In some cases, diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar syndrome is the first sign that a person has diabetes.
The treatment of diabetes also can produce symptoms. Too much glucose-lowering medicine, relative to dietary intake, can lead to a blood sugar level that has dropped too low (called hypoglycemia). Symptoms of hypoglycemia include:
seizures and loss of consciousness (if hypoglycemia is not recognized and corrected).
You can correct hypoglycemia by eating or drinking something that has carbohydrates. This raises your blood sugar level.
Long-term diabetes can have other complications, including:
Atherosclerosis — Atherosclerosis is fat buildup in the artery walls. This can impair blood flow to all parts of the body. The heart, brain, and legs are affected most often.
Retinopathy — Tiny blood vessels in the retina (the part of the eye that sees light) can become damaged by high blood sugar. The damage can block blood flow to the retina, or can lead to bleeding into the retina. Both reduce the retina''s insulin resistance to increase. As a result, additional treatment typically is required over time.
Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented.
You can decrease your risk of developing for 1 last update 30 May 2020 type 2 diabetes.You can decrease your risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
If a close relative—particularly, a parent or sibling—has type 2 diabetes, or if your blood glucose test shows "" (defined as blood glucose levels between 100 and 125 mg/dL), you are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. You can help to prevent type 2 diabetes by
maintaining your ideal body weight.
exercising regularly—such as a brisk walk of 1-2 miles in 30 minutes—at least five times a week, even if that does not result in you achieving an ideal weight. That''t lose weight.
eating a healthy diet.
If you already have type 2 diabetes, you can still delay or prevent complications by doing the following.
Keep control of your blood sugar. This for 1 last update 30 May 2020 helps reduce the risk of most complications. Keep control of your blood sugar. This helps reduce the risk of most complications.
Lower your risk of heart-related complications. Aggressively manage other risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as:
high blood the 1 last update 30 May 2020 pressurehigh blood pressure
high cholesterol and triglycerides
Visit an eye doctor and a foot specialist every year. This can help you reduce the risk of eye and foot complications.
Type 1 diabetes is always treated with insulin injections.
In most cases, type 2 diabetes treatment begins with weight reduction through diet and exercise. A healthy diet for a person with diabetes is low in total calories, free of trans fats and nutritionally balanced, with abundant amounts of whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and monounsaturated fats.
Most people with type 2 diabetes need drug therapy to control blood sugar. However, it is possible to achieve normal blood sugar levels with weight loss, a healthy diet and regular exercise.
Even if medications are required, diet and exercise remain important for controlling diabetes.
The medications used for type 2 diabetes include pills and injections. They work in many different ways. They include medications that:
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increase the amount of insulin made and released by the pancreas
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cause a burst of insulin release with each meal
delay the absorption of sugars from the intestine
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reduce your appetite for large meals
decrease the conversion of fat to for 1 last update 30 May 2020 glucose. decrease the conversion of fat to glucose.
Weight loss surgery may be an option for some obese people with type 2 the 1 last update 30 May 2020 diabetes. Weight loss surgery may be an option for some obese people with type 2 diabetes.
If you have diabetes, see your doctor regularly.
reverses diabetes type 2 zero to finals (🔴 pathogenesis) | reverses diabetes type 2 glucosehow to reverses diabetes type 2 for People with high blood sugar levels have a higher risk of dehydration. Contact your doctor immediately if you develop vomiting or diarrhea and are not able to drink enough fluids.
Monitor your blood sugar as advised by your health care team. Report any significant deviations in blood sugar levels.
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