- Type 1 vs. Type 2
- Causes/Risk Factors
- Gestational Diabetes
- Diabetic Diet
- Life Expectancy
- Doctor Specialists
Type 1 for 1 last update 11 Jul 2020 diabetes definition and factsType 1 diabetes definition and facts
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- Type 1 diabetes mellitus (formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes) is a condition in which the body stops making insulin. This causes the person's blood glucose level (blood sugar) to increase.
- There are two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2.
- In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks the pancreas, which causes the pancreas to stop producing insulin.
- In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas can produce insulin, but the body cannot use it.
- The cause of type 1 diabetes is autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells, which can be caused by viruses and infections as well as other unknown factors. In many cases, the cause is not known. Scientists are looking for cures for type 1 diabetes such as replacing the pancreas or some of its cells.
- Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are family history, introducing certain foods too soon (fruit) or too late (oats/rice) to babies, and exposure to toxins.
- Diabetic ketoacidosis, also referred to as simply ketoacidosis or DKA, is a serious and even life-threatening complication of type 1 diabetes
- Symptoms of type 1 diabetes are
- Sometimes, there are no significant symptoms.
- Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed by blood tests. The level of blood sugar is measured, and then levels of insulin and antibodies can be measured to confirm type 1 vs. type 2 diabetes.
- Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin and lifestyle changes. Specifically, meal planning to be sure that carbohydrate intake matches insulin dosing.
- Complications of type 1 diabetes are kidney disease, eye problems, heart disease, and nerve problems (diabetic neuropathy) such as loss of feeling in the feet. Poor wound healing can also be a complication of type 1 diabetes.
- Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented, however, keeping blood sugar at healthy levels may delay or prevent symptoms or long-term complications. There is currently no cure for type 1 diabetes.
- The prognosis or life expectancy for a person with type 1 diabetes is good if blood sugar levels are kept within a healthy range. The life expectancy for someone with type 1 diabetes traditionally has been about 11 years less than average, but that is changing as the prevention of complications improves and technology such as insulin pumps makes it easier for people to keep their blood sugar in a healthy range.
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Glycemic index and glycemic load are scientific terms used to measure he impact of a food on blood sugar. Foods with the 1 last update 11 Jul 2020 low glycemic load (index) raise blood sugar modestly, and thus are better choices for people with diabetes.Glycemic index and glycemic load are scientific terms used to measure he impact of a food on blood sugar. Foods with low glycemic load (index) raise blood sugar modestly, and thus are better choices for people with diabetes.
Foods to eat for a type 1 diabetic diet include complex carbohydrates such as
- brown rice,
- whole wheat,
- beans, and
What is type 1 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that affects blood sugar regulation. A person's immune system makes antibodies that destroy the insulin-producing islet beta cells in the pancreas. The pancreas then fails to make insulin. Without insulin, blood sugar increases and cannot be delivered to the muscles and brain where it is needed. Over time, high blood sugar can lead to a number of complications such as kidney, nerve, and eye damage, and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, cells do not receive the glucose necessary for energy and normal function.
Because type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, cures will likely involve replacing the damaged pancreas or promoting regeneration or functioning of the pancreas. Because people with type 1 diabetes can no longer produce their own insulin, they must inject doses of insulin. They must match the amount of insulin they inject with their diet. Keeping blood sugar in a normal, healthy range (what doctors call "good glycemic control") is the key to preventing long-term complications.
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What are the signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes can be subtle or life threatening. Some people have no symptoms (asymptomatic), and type 1 diabetes is not detected until blood or urine lab studies are done. If a person does have type 1 diabetes symptoms, early signs and symptoms are
- weight loss,
- thirst, and
- excessive urination.
Other signs and symptoms are
- an unusual odor to the urine,
- urinary tract infections (UTIs),
- yeast infections,
- unexplained weight loss,
- feeling hungry even after meals,
- stomach pain,
- swollen ankles,
- darkening skin around the armpits or groin,
- night sweats,
- blurry vision,
- fruity or unusual breath,
- hair loss, and
- generally feeling unwell (malaise).
People with type 1 diabetes may experience more frequent infections of the skin or respiratory tract.
Undiagnosed type 1 diabetes can become life threatening if a person goes into ketoacidosis (a state in which elevated blood sugar leads to other metabolic changes).
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What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
The major process that happens in type 1 diabetes is that the pancreas can no longer produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes is more a result of insulin resistance (cells not being able to use insulin effectively or at all), that is, it takes a large amount of insulin to move glucose out of the blood and into the cells. Over time, people with type 2 diabetes also may experience decreased insulin production in the pancreas. In type 1 diabetes, over time, the body can also develop insulin resistance -- especially in people who gain a lot of weight while using insulin. This means there is some overlap in treatment and diet for people who have had diabetes of either type for a long time.
How many people have type 1 diabetes?
How many people have type 1 diabetes?
Most people with diabetes (90%-95% of all those with the condition) have type 2 diabetes. Around 1.25 million American children and adults have type 1 diabetes.
Is type 1 diabetes a genetic (inherited) disease?
There is a strong genetic link with type 1 diabetes. This can be tested for by looking at the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype. First-degree relatives are at higher risk. However, with any genetic condition, it is important to remember that gene expression changes in response to the epigenetic (nutritional) environment, and risk factors can be addressed with a health care professional or nutrition/functional/naturopathic practitioner knowledgeable about epigenetics.
QUESTIONDiabetes is defined best as... See Answer
How do you develop type 1 diabetes (causes)?
Type 1 diabetes is caused by the autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin. It is not known why the autoimmune destruction happens. However, there are some known triggers, for example:
- Genetics, including family history and the prenatal environment of the mother, can put people at risk for developing type 1 diabetes.
- Exposures to chemicals, especially ones called endocrine disruptors, found in plastics
- Viral infections also can trigger the autoimmune process.
- Early or late introduction of certain foods to infants has been shown to trigger type 1 diabetes in research studies. Introducing fruit before 5 months of age or waiting until later than 7 months to introduce grains such as oats and rice increases the risk of diabetes. However, research shows that breastfeeding reduces these risks.
The underlying cause of type 1 diabetes usually is not known.
What are risk factors for developing type 1 diabetes?
Risk factors for developing type 1 diabetes include prenatal exposures, exposures to food and environmental toxins early in life, and geography.
- Prenatal exposures include maternal preeclampsia or metabolic syndrome .
- Environmental exposures include chemicals, especially those found in plastics and foods, specifically introduction of gluten, casein (the protein in dairy) or fruit before 4 months of age or late introduction (after 7 months of age) to grains (gluten, oat, and rice) and casein.
- Viral infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus or EBV (mononucleosis), Coxsackie, CMV, and other infections can also be risk factors for developing type 1 diabetes.
- Living in a northern climate is a risk factor that has not been fully explained.
Subscribe to MedicineNet''t producing enough of the amino acid homocysteine. is a rare and serious condition that may be inherited (genetic). People with homocystinuria die at an early age. Symptoms of hyperhomocysteinemia include developmental delays, osteoporosis, blood clots, heart attack, heart disease, stroke, and visual abnormalities.
There are other causes of hyperhomocysteinemia, for example, alcoholism.
Supplementing the diet with folic acid and possibly vitamins B6 and B12 supplements can lower homocysteine levels. Currently there is no direct proof that taking folic acid and B vitamins lower homocysteine levels and for 1 last update 11 Jul 2020 prevent heart attacks and strokes. Talk to your doctor if you feel you need to have your homocysteine blood levels checked.Supplementing the diet with folic acid and possibly vitamins B6 and B12 supplements can lower homocysteine levels. Currently there is no direct proof that taking folic acid and B vitamins lower homocysteine levels and prevent heart attacks and strokes. Talk to your doctor if you feel you need to have your homocysteine blood levels checked.